Sepsis is known as the medical complication that is due to the acute immune response of the body against the infection. The biochemicals that are spread in the blood stream to remove the infection causes swelling in the body. This inflammation becomes the root cause for organ damage and even the blood clotting during sepsis results in obstructed blood flow to limbs and internal organs that blocks the flow of nutrients and oxygen.
In severe conditions, sepsis results in single or multiple organ failure. The advanced level of this condition leads into major falling blood pressure that is known as the septic shock conditions which may result in multiple organ failure at the same time including kidneys, lungs, and liver resulting in death. The common people usually get confused with the term septicemia that is condition of serious secondary level infection that worsens quickly and may result in death.
Sepsis Causes and Risk Factors
The most prevalent cause for sepsis is the bacterial infections; while it can be caused due to other infections also. This condition may occur by beginning of the infection in body due to bacteria or any other infectious microbes.
The conditions responsible for sepsis may vary from the simple infections that are negligible like cracked cuticle or broken skin as well as due to the serious medical issues like meningitis, appendicitis, bone rooted infections, pneumonia or urinary tract infection. The hospitalized patients suffering may also catch infections from the IV sets or other surgical procedures. Anyone may be affected by sepsis but certain categories of people are largely at risk which includes.
- Patients suffering from weak immunity like as patients of cancer or HIV/AIDS. Apart the people taking immune suppressor for organ transplant may also get prone to sepsis.
- Infants and very young babies
- Old people with health issues
- People who have undergone major surgery or prolonged hospitalization.
- Diabetic patients.
Symptoms of Sepsis
As the beginning of the sepsis may initiate from any part of the body the symptoms are quite varied but the common signs include faster breathing and the change in mental state like increased confusion or diminished senses. Along with this the common symptoms that are observed in sepsis are as below:
- Febrile Chills or too low body temperature
- Low or reduced urine output
- Higher pulse rate
- Faster breathing
- Nauseating and vomit
Treatment of Sepsis
It is quite important to diagnosis the conditions of sepsis in early stage. The suspected patients are examined for differential tests that include the:
- Presence of Bacteria in blood stream or other body fluids
- Investigating of the infection source by methods like X-ray, Ultrasound or CT scan
- Higher or reduced White Blood Cell count
- Reduced platelet count
- Continued Low Blood Pressure
- Acidosis in blood
- Disturbed Kidney or Liver related functions
In the case of sepsis the patients are placed in the ICU for preventing the conditions of sepsis and maintain the appropriate functioning of the organs.
Medication and line of treatment for Sepsis
The common line of treatment for sepsis is base on the below steps:
- Injecting the Broad-spectrum antibiotics to invade bacterial growth.
- Managing the Blood Pressure by administering IV fluids.
- Maintaining Oxygen saturation to maintain normal blood oxygen level
This is the first step in treating sepsis; while the root cause for bacterial infection is detected. After that the physician may start on the drugs for particular type of bacteria. In other cases as per the severity of the conditions that patients are given the supports like dialysis, or oxygen supply or in some cases surgical intervention may be required to remove the infection.